In this episode, we review new updates and key concepts from the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. This guideline is newly published (April 2022) and is a full update of the 2013 guidelines and the 2017 focused update for heart failure.
- Heart failure is classified as HFrEF (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction <= 40%), HFimpEF (with improved ejection fraction – was <=40% but is now > 40%), HFmrEF (ejection fraction 41% to 49% with increased LV filling pressures), and HFpEF (preserved ejection fraction >= 50% with increased LV filling pressures). Most drug therapy recommendations are similar for HFrEF, HFimpEF, and HFmrEF whereas HFpEF therapies are different.
- The 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA heart failure guidelines now recommend SGLT2 inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin and empagliflozin, in patients with HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF.
- The 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA heart failure guidelines continue to prefer ARNi, such as sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto), over ACE inhibitors and ARBs in patients with HFrEF. Based on the PARAGON-HF trial, ARNi is also recommended in those with HFpEF albeit with a weak recommendation.
- Avoiding excessive dietary sodium is reasonable to reduce congestive symptoms in patients with heart failure; however, guidelines do not recommend a specific maximum intake nor does data support clinical outcome benefit with dietary sodium restriction.
- Heidenreich PA, Bozkurt B, Aguilar D, et al. 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines [published online ahead of print, 2022 Apr 1]. Circulation. 2022;101161CIR0000000000001063. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000001063. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIR.0000000000001063
- Ezekowitz JA, Colin-Ramirez E, Ross H, et al. Reduction of dietary sodium to less than 100 mmol in heart failure (SODIUM-HF): an international, open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet. 2022;399(10333):1391-1400. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00369-5