HelixTalk - Rosalind Franklin University's College of Pharmacy Podcast

In this episode, we review the management of a patient with hypokalemia, including both inpatient and outpatient supplementation with potassium chloride supplements and what dosage forms are available for potassium repletion.

Key Concepts

  1. Most diets will provide sufficient potassium to avoid hypokalemia. Hypokalemia usually occurs due to drug therapy (such as diuretics) or GI losses from severe vomiting or diarrhea.
  2. In patients with chronically low potassium, supplements are dosed to increase dietary intake of potassium by about 20-40 mEq per day. For acute repletion, 10 mEq of potassium should increase serum potassium by about 0.1 mEq/L.
  3. Over-the-counter potassium (as potassium gluconate) contains a very small amount of potassium (2.5 mEq). Potassium chloride powders and liquids (like salt substitutes) taste terrible and are poorly tolerated. Most patients will replete potassium via slow-release tablets (Klor-Con or Klor-Con M) or via potassium chloride IV infusions.
  4. Most IV fluids do not contain any potassium at all (or very little potassium). Patients receiving these IV fluids who are NPO will eventually become hypokalemic. Certain maintenance fluids do contain potassium – most patients will receive about 40 mEq of potassium per day with these IV fluids.
Direct download: 157-potassium.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 6:00am EDT

In this episode, we will define Digital Health, its categories and examples, describe how pharmacists are involved in DH practice, opportunities and limitations and future of DH. We will also discuss what implications DH has for educators, educational institutions, student pharmacists, pharmacists, and practice of pharmacy in general.

Key Concepts

  1. Digital Health is currently a broad umbrella category that uses mobile health, telehealth, web-based platforms, personalized medicine, and IT to provide scalable patient care.
  2. There are several focused areas within DH that would impact pharmacy practice by warranting pharmacist oversight or collaborative insights.
  3. There is positive data for pharmacist-led DH interventions using mobile apps and web-based tools, but the use of telehealth modality has mixed results.
  4. Pharmacists need to stay current in their knowledge and skills for utilizing DH tools in integrative and collaborative patient care.


  • Aungst TD, Franzese C, Kim Y. Digital health implications for clinical pharmacists services: A primer on the current landscape and future concerns. J Am Coll Clin Pharm. 2020;4(4):514-524. DOI: 10.1002/jac5.1382. https://accpjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jac5.1382
  • American Association of Colleges of pharmacies. Digital Health Workshop - Resources. https://www.aacp.org/resource/digital-health-workshop-resources (Lists resources from Digital Therapeutics Alliance and Digital Medicine Society)
  • Park T, Muzumdar J, Kim H. Digital Health Interventions by Clinical Pharmacists: A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jan 4;19(1):532. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19010532. PMID: 35010791; PMCID: PMC8744767.
Direct download: 156-digital-health.mp3
Category:general -- posted at: 5:00am EDT